figure 3, in the place of units, is only three ; the next figure 2, in the place of tens; is twenty ; figure 6, in the place of hundreds, is six hundred; and 2, in the place of thousands, is two thousand : therefore, the value of the whole is two thousand six hundred and twenty-three. Example 2. Let 39000251. be enumerated. The first figure i, in the place of units, is one ; 5, in the place of tens, is fifty ; 2, in the place of hundreds, is two hundred; 9, in the place of millions, is nine milLon; and 3, in the place of tens of millions, is thirty million : so the whole is thirty-nine million two hura dred and fifty-one.. ADDITION. Addition teaches to collect two or more numbers into one total sum or number... Simple Addition. Simple Addition teaches to collect several numbers of one kind into one total sum. RULE. 1. Place units under units, tens under tens, &c. and draw a line under the lowest rank. 2. Beginning at the place of units, add all the figures that stand in that place into one sum ; sider how many tens are contained in it, and set down the overplus under units. then con 3. Carry as many to the place of tens, as were tens contained in the sum of the first column, or place of units, adding them, and all the figures in that column, as before: proceed in the same mamer to the last column, where the whole amount of that column must be set down. PROOF Cut off the top line or number, and add 'up the others, as before ; then, if this amount and upper line added together, be equal to the total sum, the work is right. In the first example, beginning at the place of units, . I say, 4 and 9 are 13, and 6 are 19, and 8 are 27, ard 2 are 29; I set down 9, or what are over two tens or twenty, and proceed to the second column, saying, 2 that I carry to 8. are 10 and 3 are 13, and 5 are 18, and 7 are 25; 5 being set down, I proceed, saying, 2 that I carry to 2 are 4, and 1 are 5, and 7 are 1%, and 1 are 13, and 4 are 17; I then sét down the whole, and the work is done. PRACTICAL QUESTIONS. 1. A man received from A, 648 dollars; from B, 95; from C, 1594 ; from D, 15497 ; from E, 995; from F, 3580; from G, 674 ; and from H, 1119 : What was the whole amount? Answer, S.24202 2, There are five nuinbers, the first is 4870, the second 984, the third 1204, the fourth as much as the first three, and the fifth twice as much as the second and third : What is the whole sum? Answer, 18492 3. A man bought three tracts of land, the first contained 347 acres, the second 908, and the other 1086: What is the whole ? Answer, 2341 acres. SUBTRACTION. Subtraction teaches to take a less number from a greater, so that the difference, excess, or remainder, may be known. Simple Subtraction. Simple Subtraction teaches to find the difference between two numbers of one kind or denomination. RULE. 1. Place the less number under the greater, so that units may stand under units, tens under tens, &c. and draw a line underneath. Beginning at the place of units, take or subtract the lower figure from that above it, and set down the remainder. 3. But if the upper figure be less than the lower, borrow ten, or, from ten take the lower figure, and to the remainder add the upper figure, and set down the sum. 4. Then proceed to the next place, where you must pay the ten that was borrowed, by adding one to the lower figure ; then proceed in the same manner till the work is done. PROOF. Add the difference and less number together; then, if this sum is equal to the greater number, the work is right. EXAMPLES, In the first example, beginning at the place of units; I say, 4 from 5, there remains 1, which I set down, and proceed, saying, 3 from o I cannot, but 3 from 10, there remain 7, which I set down ; then, 1 that I borrowed to 9 are 10, which cannot be taken from 6, but 10 from 10 that I borrow, there remain (), to which I add the upper figure 6, and set it down ; then, 1 that I borrowed to o is 1, and 1 from 7, there remain 6, which I set down ; lastly, 1 from 8, there remain 7, hich being set down, the work is done. PRACTICAL QUESTIONS. 1. A merchant put 14603 feet of boards on board a ship; but during a storm, all were thrown overboard, except 3709 feet: What was the number lost? Answer, 10894 feet. 2. President Washington was born in the year 1732 : How old was he in the year 1797? Answer, 65 years. 3. How many must be added to 395, in order to make the sum 1081 ? Answer, 686 4. A farmer's real estate is worth 1790 dollars, his personal estate 842; and he owes to one man 120 dollars, to another 601, to another 82, to another 635, to another 45, and to another 220: What is he worth after his debts are paid? Answer, $.929 MULTIPLICATION. Multiplication teaches to increase any number so many times by itself, as the number, by which it is increased or multiplied, contains an unit. Simple Multiplication. Simple Multiplication teaches to multiply two numhers together, each of which consists of but one deik nination. Multiplication consists of three parts: h. The Multiplicand, or number to be multipliedo 2. The Multiplier, or number to multiply by. 3. The Product, or answer to the question. |